The latest actions by China and the EU are playing out against an evolving trade landscape in which China, the United States and other countries are jockeying for power in Asia.
A slew of trade agreements are currently being negotiated. The United States is working toward the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a pact with multiple Asian countries that many analysts in China view as a hedge against growing Chinese influence.
At the same time, China is pursuing its own objectives and increasing its engagement with international trade arbiters.
-- CNN's Jia Guo contributed reporting to this article.