J. Craig Venter InstituteCraig Venter gained acclaim in the late 1990s for helping map the human genome. But he's not done cracking codes. "We're looking at the world from a whole new vantage point," he says. Venter recently sailed around the world in a 95-foot boat called Sorcerer II, taking samples of ocean water every 200 miles. He's studying microorganisms that have unique ways of producing and managing energy. By cracking their genomic makeup, Venter thinks there could be a way to eliminate our dependence on fossil fuel. --J.L.Y.