Energy and the presidential race

Where the leading candidates stand on everything from a gas tax to a carbon cap to drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

John McCain
John McCain
John McCain has been a long-time supporter of carbon caps and wants some new drilling in U.S. coastal waters.

McCain has been an outspoken critic of the Bush administration for failing to cap carbon emissions, and he has pushed for a mandatory carbon cap as early as 2003.

"Strengthening our energy security goes hand-in-hand with addressing global climate change, which is real with human activity contributing to the buildup of greenhouse gases," the McCain campaign said in an email to

He favors raising fuel efficiency standards, but didn't say by how much. He did not vote for a recent Senate bill that included over $20 billion in new funding for renewables and conservation, paid largely by new taxes on the oil industry. Critics of that bill, including the White House, said it would crimp domestic energy production, raising prices for consumers.

The McCain campaign supports limited new drilling off the U.S. coast, but opposes it in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge.

Last updated January 02 2008: 9:42 AM ET

At a Glance

Rudy Giuliani

Mike Huckabee

John McCain

Mitt Romney

Hillary Clinton

John Edwards

Barack Obama