Performance materials and technologies
2011 sales: $5.7 billion

Its offerings range from the Uniflex system for extracting extra gasoline from crude to film for use in "blister packs" (above) that protect drug capsules from moisture.

By Shawn Tully, senior editor-at-large @FortuneMagazine - Last updated May 14 2012: 5:51 AM ET
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Top 50

Exxon Mobil knocks Wal-Mart from the top spot. Who else made the top 50 this year?