1. State sponsored
HAK25 state sponsored

Who: China, Iran, Israel, Russia, U.S.

Objectives: Intelligence, state secrets, sabotage

Targets: Foreign governments, terrorists, industry

Signature: Multi-tiered, precisely orchestrated attacks that breach computer systems

Classic Case: One-fifth of Iran's nuclear centrifuges crashed after Stuxnet, a worm reportedly developed by U.S. and Israeli intelligence, penetrated computers at an Iranian enrichment facility. Iran allegedly retaliated by disrupting access to the websites of J.P. Morgan (JPM, Fortune 500), PNC (PNC, Fortune 500), Wells Fargo (WFC, Fortune 500), and others.


  @FortuneMagazine - Last updated February 26 2013 06:33 AM ET
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